Assessing farmers practice on usage and on disposal pesticide waste
Mejía R., Quinteros E., López A., Ribó A., Cedillos H., Orantes C., Valladares E, López D.L
Presentation: 29.10.2013, 12:45 pm [Video]
Discussion: 29.10.2013, 13:00 pm [Discussion]
The global use of pesticides creates substantial impacts in human health and environment. Central America is the first region in the world where there is more use of pesticides. Numerous cases of acute poisonings and deaths have been reported above all in the developing countries and general are related with lack safety measures, lack of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), illiteracy and lack of sufficient knowledge of the risks of pesticide use. The present study describes the use and disposal waste of pesticide by 42 male farmers above 18 years old, with Tubular-Interstitial Chronic Kidney Disease in three agricultural communities (Nueva Esperanza, Ciudad Romero and Octavio Ortiz) of the Bajo Lempa region, El Salvador. This disease predominantly affects the farming communities in Central America in endemic and epidemic proportions, particularly male farmers, presenting at a young age that also affects with lower frequency women who are not farmers and adolescents. These communities, whose main economic activity is the familiar agriculture, present high social vulnerability due to their poverty. The investigation was carried out collecting information methodically through a structured interview aimed at farmers of these communities and through field visits for monitoring the practice of use of these agricultural products, including disposal waste. Most farmers have been exposed between 6 and 20 years to Extremely Hazardous pesticides. The most used trademarks are the herbicides Hedonal/2,4 D (100%), Paraquat/Gramoxone (97.6%), Roundup (73.8%), and Batalla and the insecticide Folidol (73.8% respectively). Some of these pesticides are legal in El Salvador but banned in other countries or international conventions. In general, farmers have a high exposition to toxic pesticides due to misuse in almost all stages of pesticide management. In general, farmers do not use the properly Personal Protective Equipment. A great proportion of the farmers dump empty containers by the field (63%) and some of them (23%) re-spray the treated field area. Farmers handled improperly pesticides endangering their health and the environment. The continuous occupational and environmental exposure to toxic substances are factors that increase the farmers vulnerability to diseases such as chronic kidney disease.